The extent to which councils undertake actions to implement a plan generally reflects the attitude towards the role of government and the role of the private sector. Some take the view that development is a private matter and that the plan should rely on the private market to determine whether particular goals can be achieved. Others believe that the market sometimes needs a push. There are a variety of tools and techniques that can be used to leverage planning outcomes. The following discussion considers land use actions as tools to achieve land use planning objectives under three broad headings: economic development, social development, cultural development, and environmental development. The focus in these sections is on the contribution of land use planning to these outcomes. It is recognized that councils may embark on a variety of other initiatives in these areas within which the contribution of land use planning approaches need to be considered. However, this broader discussion is beyond the scope of the municipal planning hub.